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Documentation - Corporations

| | Documentation Index |
| | Rules of the Game |
| | Game Features |
| | Simcountry Dictionary |
| | Simcountry Worlds |
| | Countries and Continents |
| | Enterprise Corporations |
| | FAQ |
| | Managing Corporations |
| | The Share Market |
| | The Common Market |
| | Terms and Conditions |
| | War Documents |
| | Trading Products |
| | Assets and Gold Coins |
| | Privacy Regulations |

Managing Corporations

Table of Contents:

1. Corporations
2. Products
3. The Production Process
4. Corporate finance
5. Corporate Income
6. Product Pricing
7. Corporate costs
8. Material costs
9. Maintenance costs
10. Fixed cost in corporations
11. Corporation's quality
12. Private and Public Corporations - revenue contribution
13. Special clinics for the rehabilitation of the disabled
14. Reintegration schools for housewives
15. Corporate orders
16. Supply of airports, air bases and other large objects
17. Supplies of Construction, Services, Maintenance, Air Transport and Electric power
18. Profitability of Corporations
19. Corporate profit, loss and cash flow
20. Corporate taxes and profit payments
21. Profit payments
22. Loan limit in corporations
23. Corporate assets
24. Corporate Market Value
25. Corporate market value - public corporations
26. Corporate market value of state corporations versus private corporations
27. Presidents can block CEOs from setting up corporations
28. Private and Public Corporations versus State Corporations
29. Efficiency of Corporations
30. Automatic Upgrading of Corporations
31. Corporations - Production levels
32. Retaining products in corporations
33. Automatic Product reservations for contracts
34. Not delivering on contracts and spending limit overruns
35. Contract pricing
36. Selling retained products
37. Corporations with many unsold products
38. Canceling of contracts is free of penalty
39. Workers in Corporations
40. Salaries in corporations and Salary targets
41. Setting Salary Targets
42. Corporations - Hiring and firing
43. State and national corporations
44. Money transfers between countries and state corporations
45. Private Corporations
46. Private corporations - Upgrade level
47. Automatic bidding on corporations
48. Public Corporations
49. Corporations can repurchase their own shares
50. Corporations can issue new shares at market value
51. Setting up new corporations
52. Building corporations
53. New Corporations Profitability
54. Building corporations in Computer Controlled Countries
55. Purchasing existing corporations
56. Corporations in countries with no president
57. Gamemaster Corporations
58. Moving a corporation to another country.
59. Moving a corporation into a C3 country
60. Corporations at risk of being closed
61. Closing Corporations
62. Recently closed corporations
63. Changing the name of a corporation
64. Some Product Descriptions

1. Corporations [ top ]

Corporations in Simcountry are essential to the economy of all countries. Each country has initially between 12 and 15 corporation.

There are several types of corporations.
There are state corporations that are owned by the country itself and national corporations that are also state corporations but are considered essential to the country and cannot ever be taken over by a private investor.

There are private corporations that are owned by an Enterprise and reside in a country and also public corporations that are owned by many shareholders who own shares in the corporation. The shares of such corporations are traded on the stock market. The shareholder, who owns the largest number of shares, is considered to be the CEO of the corporation and is in control of the corporation. This means that the corporation appears on his/her list of corporations.

There are several types of public corporations. In some of the public corporations, the country where the corporation resides is the largest shareholder. We call these corporations "Country controlled" public corporations. In some of the public corporations, an enterprise is the largest shareholder. We call these corporations "Enterprise controlled" public corporations.

We also look differently at public corporations where the largest shareholder has less than 25% of the shares. These are "truly" public corporations and they can become even more valuable than any other corporation type in Simcountry.

Corporations employ many workers and their success is essential for your success in the game. Corporations are successful if they produce and sell large quantities of the products they produce. They must run at full capacity or close to full capacity and sell everything they produce.

Full production can be achieved if the corporations sell their product in a competitive way on the market or close direct trading agreements with other corporations and countries.

Corporations can be very profitable if handled correctly and will pay taxes to the government, which will in turn enable it to pay for whatever it wants to achieve. Failing to manage the corporations may lead to large losses and to bankruptcy and closure of the corporations.

Corporations are meant to be very large and they produce a single product or a group of products. Examples: Corn, meat (any kind of meat), Meat products (any kind of processed meat products), Services, High tech services or military services. There are more than 200 different products, each with its own production process and raw materials that are needed in the production process.

Simcountry is running 3000 to 6400 countries in each world. Having 10.000 or 100.000 corporations in each country, would make it impossible to process the huge number of transactions and impossible for any player to manage such numbers. With the current number of corporations per country we are already running 50.000 to 120.000 corporations in each world.

2. Products [ top ]

There are more than 200 different products in the game. They vary from food and industrial products to High-tech products and weapons. All products are used in large quantities but there are significant differences in quantities that are being used.

Bread is used by people and all countries purchase bread. Bread is not used in the production of other products and is not purchased by corporations. Weapons too are used only by countries and by some maintenance corporations.

Services are used everywhere. People use services, schools use them, the army, and all the corporations too. Corporations use services that are provided by others during the production process. They purchase services or otherwise they will not be able to make their own products.

The consumption of services is very large and of course, there are many services corporations.

High-tech services, (Automation, data processing, robotics etc.), are not used by people but mainly by corporations. Most of the purchases of High tech services come from corporations who are using these services as part of their production process.

When you look at the Market utilization page (on the Trading menu) you will see a full list of all the products in the game and the quantities being produced and consumed. Also the number of corporations in the world producing these products is available.

3. The Production Process [ top ]

Corporations make products by using their production facilities, workers they hired to work in their facilities and raw materials and services they need to make their own products.

Each product has its own production process. For example: the car manufacturing corporation will use: Aluminum, steel, copper and other metals, Chemicals, Plastics, Electric and Electronic components, Services and High-tech services. It also uses maintenance products to keep the factory in top form.

There are other corporations that produce all these raw materials and each of these corporations has its own manufacturing process, where other raw materials are needed.

Each corporation needs workers of different professions. They need workers, managers, executives and high tech people. Depending on the type of corporations, the numbers needed from each group may vary.

Each corporation has a detailed page that shows which products are used in the production process, the quantities that are needed and the quantity that the corporation has in stock. It also shows how many workers are needed to make the production possible.

4. Corporate finance [ top ]

Corporations produce very large quantities of product and sell their product for large amounts of money on the market or in direct contracts to their partners. Corporations also have high cost and pay for raw materials, salaries and much more.

It is essential for the corporation owner to try and achieve high income. It makes it possible for him/her to improve the financial situation of his corporations, pay possible debts the corporation may have and it makes it possible to pay part of the profits as taxes or profit payments to the owner. The owner might be the country if the corporation is a state corporation or an enterprise, if the corporation is a private corporation. It may also be a group of shareholders that share in the ownership of the corporation.

Countries and enterprises depend on payments they receive from their corporations. They are only able to develop and thrive if they receive large contributions from the corporations.

5. Corporate Income [ top ]

The income of corporations comes from the sale of their products. Their income from these products is in the hundreds of millions to several billions each month. Income may be even higher if the corporation produces high quality products and is able to sell them at a higher price. If there are shortages of the product on the world market, prices may increase and income may sour to even much higher levels.

Product pricing on the world market may change quickly, and very high monthly sales can diminish and the corporation may make losses. The welfare index in the country and the salary levels in the corporation are also important factors that influence the productivity in the corporations and have a major influence on its profits.

We advise you to look into your corporations and try to increase production levels to the maximum possible. If there are not enough workers, it is better to close a low production corporation and free workers to increase production in other corporations.

6. Product Pricing [ top ]

The price of products on the market fluctuates with demand and supply. The market is "regulated" in several ways: Changes are limited to several percentage points per game month. The reason is that production can take some time to increase and unlimited price hikes, can cause major damage before more supplies become available.

Price fluctuations are also limited to about 50% above the "base price" of products. The base price is the price that was attached to products by design, to make sure that corporations will be able to become profitable.

At twice the base price corporations become extremely profitable but the price can also fall to about 50% of the base price at which level, corporations are losing money and may bankrupt.

A major factor in the pricing is the quality of the products. The market price of products as it shows on the market pages does not include any quality factors.

7. Corporate costs [ top ]

Corporations also have high cost. The cost includes salaries to the workers in the corporation, the cost of raw materials, fixed cost including the cost of having the facilities and building and the cost of the corporate management and administration.

There is also the cost of maintenance to keep the production facilities in good shape and in continuous production, the cost of upgrades that are needed to improve the corporation's product quality and the efficiency of the production processes and if the corporation has an outstanding debt, the cost of interest payments on this debt and repayment of expired loans.

Private and enterprise controlled public corporations have an additional cost factor, which is a contribution of part of their turnover to the country where they reside as compensation for the use of country resources and for occupying part of the country's economic capacity.

Most corporations are profitable, and after paying these costs, will probably pay taxes to the country where they reside and some dividends to the shareholders. These shareholders may be the country only, if the corporation is a state corporation, the enterprise only if the corporation is a private corporation or it may be a larger group of smaller shareholders, in case the corporation is a public corporation.

8. Material costs [ top ]

Corporations use large quantities of raw materials in the production process. Computing the material cost is a little complex. A corporation has large quantities of materials on stock and may produce at full capacity for several months without purchasing any raw materials. On the other hand, it may run out of several materials on the same month and make huge purchases of materials in a single month with costs that are much higher than the income the corporation makes in several months.

These variations in cost of materials can make the corporate finance hard to understand. To make it easier to understand and more stable, we look at he materials used each month and take the value of the used materials as the cost of materials for the month. This is done independent of any purchase of materials on the market.

When materials are used, the value of all materials on stock is reduced, and the reduction in their value is in fact the cost of the materials used in that month.

On the other hand, the purchase of materials on the market is not considered to be a cost for the corporation. The purchase of materials is in fact exchange of cash for materials. The total value of materials plus the cash remains the same. The value of raw materials a corporation has in stock is calculated each month and it shows on the cash flow on the corporation. When raw materials are purchased, cash is paid out and cash reserves in the corporation may drop sharply but the cash is replaced by an increased value of the raw materials the corporation has in stock.

Cash may run out if the cost of materials is very high and new loans must be taken to bring the cash back to the green. When cash is negative, loans are taken automatically.

9. Maintenance costs [ top ]

Maintenance is part of the cost of corporations keeping their facilities running at their current quality level. The cost depends mainly on the quality level of the corporation. Corporations use "Corporate maintenance Units" to keep their facilities running at full quality.

Maintenance cost in corporations depends on the quality of the corporation and on its type. State corporations require more maintenance and high quality corporations also require higher quality maintenance.

Corporations buy factory maintenance products and use them each month. The number of factory maintenance products that are needed each game month, depends on the quality level of the corporation and on the type of the corporation. State corporations use more factory maintenance products.

Corporations must have enough factory maintenance units to make sure they are well maintained. If there are shortages of the product in a corporation, the corporation may see its production level declining.

Corporate maintenance units are purchased by the corporations in the same way raw materials are purchased.

Once a state corporation becomes a private or a state corporation, the cost of factory maintenance falls.

Maintenance cost does not depend on the production level in the corporation. It is the same amount independent of the income of the corporation. This is why maintenance cost is relatively higher if the corporation is producing at a low level. Corporations that are producing a low level become much less profitable because several cost items become relatively high.

10. Fixed cost in corporations [ top ]

Fixed costs that include rent for the corporate facilities and general overhead and administration, also depend on whether a corporation is a state corporation, which is less efficient and on the quality of the corporation. Fixed costs are higher in state corporations and are independent of the production and hiring levels.

The fixed cost of a state corporation is higher, especially if the corporation is producing at a very high quality. If the corporation becomes a private or public corporation, fixed cost will immediately fall.

Fixed cost, like maintenance cost, does not depend on the production level in the corporation. It is the same amount independent of the income of the corporation. This is why the fixed cost is relatively higher if the corporation is producing at a low level. Corporations that are producing a low level become much less profitable because several cost items become relatively high.

11. Corporation's quality [ top ]

When corporations are created, they make their products at standard quality. They all start with a quality level of 120. It is possible for the corporations to improve their production process and increase the quality level of the corporation up to a level of about 200 (for state corporations and 225 for private and most public corporations).

Upgraded real public corporations can now reach a level of 250. This level is only possible in public corporations where the largest shareholder owns less than 25% of the shares.

You may decide to increase the quality of the products in your corporations. To achieve this, you must upgrade your corporations and purchase quality upgrades. These products are costly but the investment pays back.

The quality upgrades result in a corporation that produces higher quality products. Increasing the quality will enable the corporation to sell its products, for a higher price and make more profit. Quality upgrades are purchased by the corporation on the open market and their price fluctuates with supply and demand.

12. Private and Public Corporations - revenue contribution [ top ]

Private and public corporations pay a percentage of their turnover to the countries where they reside. These payments come on top of any tax payments.

These corporations are very profitable for the countries where they reside. Many of the corporations are built in C3 countries and anyone who will look into the finance pages of some of the C3 countries will see that the income from private corporations is substantial.

We advise everyone to try and attract private corporations to their countries as their income will grow substantially.

13. Special clinics for the rehabilitation of the disabled [ top ]

It is possible to convert hospitals into special clinics that will give intensive treatment to disabled people and return many of them to normal life.

Each clinic can treat 1000 disabled people and will release 200 of them each month as fit for jobs in the economy.

The clinics are in fact financed by contributions to the economy made by private corporations. The rehabilitated people are working for these private corporations. The number of people that can be treated depends on the number of people in the country who are working for private corporations.

The maximum number of people that can be rehabilitated is 40% of the number of people that are working in private corporations.

If private corporations close and the number of workers in these corporations is reduced for any reason, the number of disabled may grow again.

This feature makes it possible to increase the percentage of people in the country that participate in the economic process and it makes it possible to build more corporations with the same population numbers. It also helps to reduce the payments for social security that are paid to disabled people and constitute a major cost each month.

14. Reintegration schools for housewives [ top ]

It is possible to convert universities into special schools that retrain housewives for participation in the job market.

Each school can train 12.000 housewives and 1000 of them return to the job market each month.

The schools are in fact financed by contributions to the economy made by private corporations. The retrained housewives work in these private corporations. The number of housewives that can be trained depends on the number of people in the country who are working for private corporations.

The maximum number of housewives that can re-enter the job market is 40% of the number of people that are working in private corporations.

If private corporations close and the number of workers in these corporations is reduced for any reason, many housewives may leave the job market.

Achieving excellent finance is in fact difficult if these features are not used. Enterprise owned corporations are essential in the process and presidents should make sure that many enterprises, their own enterprises and other, will set up or purchase corporations in their countries.

15. Corporate orders [ top ]

Corporations order materials when the available quantity is reduced to the quantity they need for two months production.

Orders for new materials are large and may be seen as unrealistic. They are made large by design, to reduce the number of orders on the product market. Orders for raw material are at a level of about 12 months of what is needed for the production process.

16. Supply of airports, air bases and other large objects [ top ]

On the supply and demand list, you may see that there are airports available or military bases etc. and you may purchase them. This does not mean that airports are sitting on the "shelve" waiting to be purchased. It does mean that there is free capacity on the market to build such airports or schools etc. and the capacity is not fully occupied at this point in time.

When you purchase the airport, it means that you closed a contract to build it. Building will start immediately and delivery time depends on what object it is. Schools are delivered faster than airports, roads, train-track and military bases. Delivery times are in fact unrealistic. Objects are delivered quickly.

If there is a shortage of schools or other such large objects, it means that there is no party in the market that will close a contract to build the school and you must wait until such capacity becomes available.

17. Supplies of Construction, Services, Maintenance, Air Transport and Electric power [ top ]

Unlike bread, corn, cocoa and medical equipment, services and construction are not products that can be bought and stored. The availability and purchase of these products on the market means in fact that contracts for supply have been closed and the products will be delivered, as they are needed for use. The products are purchased and sold on the market. Their prices change with supply and demand.

18. Profitability of Corporations [ top ]

Corporations that are upgraded to high quality and produce at full capacity can become very profitable. Especially when they produce products that are in short supply, profit levels can increase.

Corporations that are producing at low level are not profitable. It is difficult to keep a corporation afloat when it produces at less than 50% of capacity. If product prices are low, corporations will make even larger losses and may go out of business.

We advise you to review the corporations in your country. Close some of them if they are not profitable or producing at low levels. Man power in the country is essential and if there are too many corporations, or education is not balanced correctly, you may not be able to keep all corporations at full production.

You should setup new corporations for products that are in short supply. Upgrade these corporations and make sure they sell their products at the max price possible in the market and have all the raw materials they need.

Each successful corporation is a major asset. Their market value can be very high and they will produce high profits and increase your income.

19. Corporate profit, loss and cash flow [ top ]

As a result of this way of computing the costs of the corporation (which is very close to the way the real world works), corporations show a stable financial process. Their income and cost may vary from month to month but the cost depends on the level of production and is independent of the purchase of raw materials. The quality of raw materials used in production is very important as the quality of the produce, depends on the quality level of the production process and the quality of the raw materials.

The cash flow in a corporation is more erratic. There are many months with income from product sale and no cost for materials, which causes the cash to go up fast. There are also several months when the corporation makes large purchases of materials and its cash sinks very fast and may end up deep in the red. In general, the total of cash plus the value of materials in stock plus the total debt of the corporation is stable and will go up if the corporation makes a profit and down is it loses money.

20. Corporate taxes and profit payments [ top ]

Most corporations are profitable. The country can set tax levels for corporations and will receive part of that profit. The remaining amount can remain in the corporation but the owner may also decide to make the corporation pay part of the profit after tax to the owner.

Example: If the tax is at 30%, and the profit payments are at 60% it means that if profit was 100 M. 30 M will be paid as tax and 42 M (60% of the remaining 70 M) will be paid to the owner as profit participation. You are advised to leave part of the profit within the corporation and allow it to pay back loans. Loans require interest payments that reduce the profit of the corporation.

Corporate tax as set by the country president has many consequences. The net profit of corporations that is used for the computation of profit per share is based on the profit after tax and profit sharing (Or dividend) deductions.

Changes in the percentages of tax and profit sharing result in immediate changes in profitability, and have consequences for the share price.

Some presidents manipulated the tax percentages and influenced share prices while trading in the same shares for their own benefit. They know in advance what is about to happen to share prices and they trade with this knowledge.

Frequent changes in tax percentages have no function except for influencing of profits and market values. These changes are limited in size to prevent anyone from exploiting this feature.

The market value of the corporation depends on its profit after tax. The market value is important as it is part of the assets of the owner and assets are a measure of success and have an influence on the score of the country or enterprise.

21. Profit payments [ top ]

Corporations pay part of their profits to the shareholders (owners). State corporations pay the country, which is the owner of the corporation. Private corporations pay the enterprise and public corporations pay dividends to the shareholders. The level of payments can be set by the owner.

Corporations that have large loans and negative assets should in fact not pay profit sharing or dividends. They should take care of their own finances first. Some corporations pay large amounts in profit sharing and keep so little cash for themselves that the cost of upgrading such corporations must be paid out of loans.

Corporations are prevented from paying out their profits if the total assets of the corporation or its net cash (cash less loans) are negative. Retaining more cash in the corporations will help them to reduce their debt.

It is also possible to support corporations with cash from the country or enterprise. It will be a good move to reduce corporate debts and in this way also prevent bankruptcy of many corporations. Bankruptcy is disastrous as the owner inherits the debt of his bankrupted corporation.

Corporations with large amounts of cash are forced to transfer some of the cash to their owners. These transfers begin at net cash levels of around 50 B and amount to 2 B per game month and they are increased if net cash is at 100B and 300B levels.

22. Loan limit in corporations [ top ]

When the cash position of corporations becomes negative, they will receive a loan. The loan will be given by either a player who offers loans on the money market or by the world bank if no loans are available from other players.

Loans must be paid back and they carry interest that is paid each game month. The interest rate is 15% per real.

Corporations that keep losing money and are not helped by their owner, who can transfer money to the corporation, may bankrupt.

The loan limit for corporations depends on their asset value. There are in fact three loan limits:

If the corporate assets are <0 (technically bankrupt in the real world but not in Simcountry): The corporation will bankrupt is the total of its loans, less the cash it has less the value of the raw materials it has in stock, is >90 B.

This means that the total of loans if much larger (by 90 B), than the total of cash it has plus the value of raw materials.

Also if the corporate assets are <0: The corporation will bankrupt is the total of its loans is >120 B independent of its cash and raw materials.

A corporation will also bankrupt, if the loan total is >200B. This is independent of the corporate assets that may even be positive.

Countries and enterprises can support their corporations, transfer funds into the corporations and repay debt to prevent closings. In case of a closing, the cash of the corporation and the debt of the corporation are inherited by the owner of the corporation. This is either the country or a CEO. {text] Some players are sometimes surprised to see new loans in their country or enterprise while their cash position is positive. These loans are in most cases, the result of corporate bankruptcy.

The debt limits for corporations will be reduced further. The current levels are unrealistically high.

23. Corporate assets [ top ]

The assets of the corporation include the value of the facility (factory or farm land etc.) plus the cash, debts and value of the materials in stock. The assets of the corporation will increase if it is profitable and decline if losses are incurred.

When assets are negative, the corporation is technically bankrupt but this is currently not implemented to the full. Bankruptcy conditions allow corporations to continue and give the owners a change to improve the situation. A warning is given if 60% of the bankruptcy levels have been reached.

24. Corporate Market Value [ top ]

The value of corporations depends on their profit or loss. The more profitable they are, the higher their market value. Public corporations are traded on the stock exchange and share prices depend on supply and demand.

Private and state corporations values depend on a longer-term profit figures and not on a single month profit hikes. A sudden change in the profit (caused by sale of multiple month production in a single month, cannot cause corporate values to jump.

State and private corporations are sometimes in very bad conditions, suffer losses and have huge debts.

Very low corporate values do not always imply that these corporations are close to bankruptcy. If a corporation is selling a product that is in short supply or the corporation is upgraded to a high level and has the capability to produce profits in the future, than it may make sense to support it with cash transfers and allow it to pay back its debt.

Bidding on such corporations becomes easier. The minimum bid amount is 1.0 million. Winning such bids and taking over such corporations does bring the risk of financial liabilities for the new owner. If a corporation you own is bankrupt, your country or enterprise (the owner of the corporation) will inherit the debts. If a corporation with 90 Billion in debt bankrupts, you inherit the obligation to pay the complete debt.

25. Corporate market value - public corporations [ top ]

The market value of public corporations depends on the share market. They fluctuate mainly between values that correspond with P/E ratio of 4 to 70. P/E ratio is the result of dividing the market value of the corporation by its profit in the last period or the price of one share, divided by the average profit per share in the last period.

Some corporations have a high P/E ratio, which means that the corporations are less profitable. The share price should go down but sometimes it does not because there are buyers for these shares.

Most share trading is done automatically by investment funds that are investing part of their cash in shares. These funds will not buy shares with a high P/E ratio and they will start selling if the P/E ratio goes under a certain value.

Players can buy at any price and some try to protect the value of their corporations by purchasing the shares that were offered on the market at any price to prevent them from falling.

The share market is active and large scale trading is taking place.

26. Corporate market value of state corporations versus private corporations [ top ]

The market price of such corporations is computed as a function of their profit (after tax) as a percentage of their revenue. The more profit they make, the higher their market value goes. A corporation that makes a profit percentage of 25% may be 4 times more valuable than one that makes 12.5% profit.

If such corporations have a lot of cash and no loans, their assets value will add to their market value while high loans and low assets value will reduce the market value.

The market value will be reduced even more, depending on the tax percentage the corporations pay. The market value depends on the profit after tax. A 30% tax reduces the net profit after tax to 70% of its full level and the market value is also reduced.

Countries that set their tax percentages very high will see high tax revenues but also lower assets and their corporations will become easy targets for a takeover. They may be profitable corporations but have a low value because of the low after-tax profit. After a takeover, the new owner may move the corporation to a low tax country, increase the market value of the corporation and make a nice profit.

27. Presidents can block CEOs from setting up corporations [ top ]

Presidents can choose to completely block CEOs from building in their countries. The function can be turned on or off on the settings pages.

Having private corporations in your country is very profitable and can enable higher levels of development. Read more about private corporations and don't rush to block CEOs.

28. Private and Public Corporations versus State Corporations [ top ]

Many players are blocking private corporations and do not allow them to set up in their countries.

This is a major error.

Private and public corporations contribute much more to the host country than any state corporation.

Private and Public corporations are paying a percentage of their revenue to the host country. This is a percentage of the product sales they make, not their profit. In addition, they also pay taxes to the country.

State corporations are less efficient and spend more on maintenance and they also spend more on corporate fixed cost than private and public corporations. This reduces their profits and their market value.

In addition, private and public corporations do not need any military protection as they are immune to any war activity and cannot be damaged or destroyed. State corporations are and remain prime targets in any military conflict.

29. Efficiency of Corporations [ top ]

When created, corporations use a basic production process, which is part of their design, which makes them employ a fixed number of workers in different levels (High level workers, High-tech engineers etc.). All corporations are created at an efficiency level of 100.

You may decide to increase the efficiency of your corporations. To achieve this, you must upgrade your corporations and allow them to purchase efficiency upgrades. These products are costly but the investment may pay back.

Efficiency upgrades will make a corporation produce the same amount of product but use a smaller number of workers. It will use a much smaller number of low-level workers and medium level but require more high level workers, managers of all levels and high tech engineers and executives. In addition, it may slightly increase the need for High-tech services the corporation will purchase and use in the production process.

The main advantage of the efficiency upgrades is a reduction in the number of workers that are involved with each corporation. It makes it possible to build more corporations in the country with the same population level.

Each Efficiency upgrade you purchase for the corporation will increase the efficiency by 1 point. You can increase the level of state corporations from the initial 100 up to 200.

Upgraded public corporations can now reach a level of 225. A level of 250 is also possible but this level is reserved to public corporations that have most of their shares traded on the market and the largest shareholder owns less than 25% of the shares.

As a corporation becomes older, its efficiency will automatically decline. It declines by 1 point each 8 to 10 game months but this interval may change in the future.

A corporation that was fully upgraded will use a smaller workforce. The reduction can reach up to 40% compared to the workforce needed when the corporation is not upgraded. Salary costs will remain at the same level or may increase slightly.

Repeated upgrading of many corporations will increase the need for high-level workers, managers, executives and high tech employees. The education system must be tuned to produce them. If not, the economy will be short of these professionals and corporations might reduce production or stop production altogether if they are unable to find the workers they need.

30. Automatic Upgrading of Corporations [ top ]

Corporation upgrades are used to improve both the quality of products and the efficiency of the production process. Upgrading corporations is a lengthy process and requires manual intervention.

It is also possible to set this process into automatic mode. The feature can be set on for all new corporations on the automation page. It can also be set on for each corporation separately and it is possible to set this option on for all corporations at once.

31. Corporations - Production levels [ top ]

Corporations try to produce at full capacity unless explicitly required to reduce production by their owner. There are however, several reasons that can make a corporation reduce or stop production.

When products remain unsold, and the automatic process drives the production in the corporation, it will reduce production and wait for the products to be sold. It will also fire some workers to reduce cost.

When a corporation does not find enough workers, it will hire what it can and adjust production to the hiring levels.

When some raw materials or services are not available, the corporation may stop production altogether. If you have no oil, you cannot produce gasoline. All corporations depend on raw materials and services and their production process will fail when it is short on any of these raw materials.

A corporation will increase its production levels if the welfare of its workers is considered high. This is the case when the country has a good social security system, employment is high and the salary levels are good. The salary level in the corporations is the most important factor. Corporations' output in standard conditions and full availability of raw materials is considered to be at a level of 100. With a very high welfare index, the level may increase to 105, 110 or even up to 130.

All the details and data on each corporation are available in the corporation's pages with many detail pages on each and every aspect of each corporation.

32. Retaining products in corporations [ top ]

Corporations can retain products to be able to deliver on signed contracts. This can be done manually and the user decides how much to retain. It can also be automatic. In that case, the amount of retained products is computed based on the existing contracts.

If contracts expire or when you move from manual to automatic mode, all retained products that are not needed, will be sold automatically on the open market.

Retaining large quantities of products is risky. Corporations that retain large quantities of their products do pay their workers, purchase the raw materials they need but make no revenue. These corporations will accumulate debt and may even bankrupt unless cash is injected to keep them afloat.

Some players use these corporations to stock weapons. This is fine if the stock levels are equal to several months' production. If stocks are much higher, than production levels in the corporation will drop as very high stock levels in corporations may cause them to bankrupt.

Countries have the possibility to stock strategic supplies of all products and also the capability to keep weapons in reserve without the need for a huge army. These options represent a better way to keep strategic reserves.

Enterprises too can stock up any products and can be used as places where products are kept for later trading and as a source of supplies.

A corporation that has more than 12 months stock of produce will automatically sell 10% of its stock in immediate mode.

33. Automatic Product reservations for contracts [ top ]

All product reservations are automatic unless a player has chosen to set product reservation to manual mode. Any contract you close, both within the local and common markets, and outside these markets, will be followed by an automatic product reservation to ensure delivery of products that are promised in these contracts.

When you are interested in keeping some of your products in some of your corporations on stock and not offer them on the market, you can do so by changing the reservation procedure in these corporations into manual mode. In that mode, the product reservations in these corporations are your own responsibility.

A corporation may produce 1000 units of some product, have contracts for the delivery of 500 and retain 800 units because you want to sell 300 units at a later date. (The last 200 units will be offered on the world market).

You can set the reservation of that corporation to manual and retain 800 products per month. Any change in the contracts of that corporation must be followed by a manual update of the retained quantities.

If you decide to set the product reservation for a corporation to automatic mode, the quantity of products that are needed to be reserved for the existing contracts will be recomputed and all the retained products that are not needed for the current contracts will be offered on the international market.

34. Not delivering on contracts and spending limit overruns [ top ]

When a corporation does not deliver on a current contract, a message is showing on the corporation page but such failure has no further consequences.

Country contracts for delivery of weapons and products in general, may cause the spending limit of the country to overrun. The same may be the case with the spending limit for weapons.

If the spending limits become negative the contracts are updated downward, by a mall percentage. If the spending limits remain negative and the limit is exceeded by a large margin, contracts may be cut by 50% in each game month this happens, until the spending limit recovers. Contract quantities remain at the reduced levels even when the spending limits recover.

35. Contract pricing [ top ]

All contracts in the game are executed at market price. In the past, deviations from the market price where possible but they have been used to intentionally benefit one of the two parties and practically allowed for large fund transfers between countries, enterprises and corporations.

In the current situation, money transfers have been made easier. Countries within empires can move large amounts of money between them and other ways to obtain money in the game are also available.

36. Selling retained products [ top ]

Some corporations retain large quantities of products and are not selling any of them on the market. This leaves the corporation without any revenue for a long time and it should in fact go out of business. As this may be seen as harsh and unreasonable, we think that such corporations are used either to stock weapons, which is now also possible in the countries (reserve army) and in enterprises or they are used to manipulate corporations value by creating a huge turnover and profit once in a while.

These corporations will not go out of business. Instead, a corporation that has more than 12 months stock of produce will automatically sell 10% of its stock in immediate mode.

37. Corporations with many unsold products [ top ]

Some corporations are stocking up many products and never sell them. Such corporations in the real world are bankrupted. Products are aging and should be discarded.

Simcountry has a way to stock up products. It can be done as strategic stock both in enterprises and in countries.

Corporations with unsold output that has a market value above 300 B (which is equivalent to several years of production) will see 1% of the product disappear each game month with a minimum of one product. This procedure eliminates old products from corporations and makes them sell the products on the market or stock them up in their enterprises or countries.

Such corporations sometime have large loans outstanding and may bankrupt if they do not sell the products and use the proceeds to pay back the loans.

38. Canceling of contracts is free of penalty [ top ]

A corporation can cancel any contract any time and the cancellation has no further financial consequences. Deliveries will stop directly after the cancellation.

39. Workers in Corporations [ top ]

When created, each corporation is designed to employ a certain number of workers. There are many groups of employees. Workers: (Low, middle, and high level), managers: (low, middle, high level and executives), high-tech engineers, senior engineers and executives.

The numbers depend on the type of the corporation (The product it produces). Many agricultural products corporations hire mainly workers, some managers and executives but no high tech employees. High tech services corporations hire large numbers of high tech workers.

When a corporation produces at 50% of its capacity, it may do so with 50% of the workers in all professions.

If the number of high-level workers available to the corporation is only at 20% of what it needs, it will not produce at a higher level even if there are sufficient numbers of employees available in all other professions. It is essential to make sure that workers are available or production will be damaged or even stop.

The numbers hired, needed, their salaries and many other details are available on the corporation pages.

If a corporation is upgrading its efficiency, the number of workers needed is changing. With each efficiency upgrade, the number of low and medium-level workers needed is reduced. The number of high-level workers is increased slightly and also the number of executives and high-tech workers is increased.

This shift in the numbers needed, repeats itself with each upgrade. The number of workers needed is decreasing and even with the higher salaries of the higher-level professionals that are increasing in numbers, the total amount of salaries is slightly decreased with every upgrade.

40. Salaries in corporations and Salary targets [ top ]

The salaries in new corporations are initially set to the average of salaries in all the corporations in the country. The level is a percentage relative to the initial salary levels as at the start of the game. The original level was 100.

You are able to increase or decrease the salary level in the corporations and you may leave this decision to the automatic system that will decrease salaries if a corporation is losing money and increase the salaries if a corporation is profitable.

The salary level in a corporation is measured with an index, which originated at 100. if the index is at a 200 level, it means that salaries are at twice the base level.

If salary levels are below 70, changes are limited to 10 points up or 3 points down.
If salary levels are above 70 and lower than 500, changes are limited to 3 point up or 3 points down.
If salary levels are above 500, changes are limited to 3 point up or 30 points down.

It is also possible to set salary target levels in corporations. Salary levels will then be changed monthly with the permitted percentage until they reach the target level. Targets can be set to all corporations at once.

The salaries are important for the motivation of workers (The level influences the welfare index), and with it the production levels in the corporation. Salary levels are also very important in the competition with other corporations.

A corporation that pays its workers at a lower level than other corporations in the same country may see its workers quitting their jobs. These workers will move to other corporations for better salaries. This process is limited to 10% of the workers in any corporation per game month.

There is always some competition for workers, between different corporations, state and private corporations. There is also a tendency to increase salaries to prevent workers from moving out.

High salary levels however, will result in high salary costs for the corporations and at very high levels, reduce profitability. Corporations may suffer losses as result of salaries that are too high. They will see their market value plummet, their cash reduced, they will have to take loans and pay interest.

Salaries in corporations have an influence on the government salary index. If Government salaries remain lower, people can start leaving their government jobs for employment in the industry.

Private corporations can set their salary level without any influence on the government salary index and the movement of workers.

41. Setting Salary Targets [ top ]

Changes in salaries are limited to several percentage points per month. It is however possible to set salary targets per corporation and for all corporations and an automatic process will change the salaries gradually and reach the target over time. This function reduces the amount of clicking that is needed to change salaries each game month for a long period.

The function is available on each corporation page and also on the page that shows salaries for all corporations. Targets can be set for one, many, or all corporations at once. The target is set as a salary index number. Base salaries are showing an index of 100. Setting targets to 120 will bring salaries to a level of 20% above the base value. Monthly changes are limited to 3 points and will end when the target is reached.

42. Corporations - Hiring and firing [ top ]

When production levels are reduced for any reason, corporations will reduce their work force. They cannot reduce the work force to the required level at once but must adjust hiring step by step. Firing workers will be limited to 10% of the work force per game month. In the mean time, corporations might produce at a lower level but keep paying salaries to a much larger number of employees.

When hiring, a maximum of 12% of the work force of full capacity can be hired in a single game month. This may limit the production while hiring is not completed.

If a corporation cannot find the workers it needs, hiring will be limited. In this case, hiring levels may change faster than the limits described before.

As an example, large purchases of weapons may require many new officers in the army. These officers are recruited from the group of medium level managers (up to 50 years old). If this group is depleted and none are available for corporations because they all went to the army, corporations might not be able to hire any workers at all and production will stop. (Adjust education priorities if you need many soldiers and officers).

43. State and national corporations [ top ]

There are two types of government owned corporations. These are state corporations and National corporations. The only difference between the two types is that national corporations cannot be purchased by an enterprise.

Enterprise CEO's can purchase state corporations from governments. When a state corporation is purchased by an Enterprise, it becomes a private corporation.

You may decide to keep several industries under control of the state. These may be weapon factories, or some high value corporations. The reasons are up to the president. It is possible to change the status of a corporation and make it a national industry. However, only twenty corporations may be national. If you already have twenty national corporations and you want to make a different corporation a national industry, you must first change the status of one of the national industries into a state corporation.

State corporations, including the national corporations, pay taxes to the government. The percentage of the tax payments can be changed but very high taxes will destroy the capability of the corporations to function. In addition, state corporations pay some of their profit after tax to the corporation owner, which is again the government. Also the percentage of these payments may be set by the president.

If you want to prevent any takeover of any of your corporations, you can block CEOs. All your corporations will remain state corporations. We strongly advise against it as the profits of state corporations and mainly their contributions to the state, are lower than the contributions by private and public corporations

44. Money transfers between countries and state corporations [ top ]

Money transfers are possible between a country and a state corporation. The feature makes it possible for countries to support their state corporations and prevent bankruptcies. Corporations with high loans may otherwise be forced to close down. Money transfers from the country will allow them to pay their debt and prevent closure.

Transfer can take place to many corporations in a single operation. Loans can be paid in the same way and repeated transfers can follow, to clear up all loans and raise cash levels.

45. Private Corporations [ top ]

Private corporations are owned by a CEO of an enterprise. Enterprises are large groups of corporations that reside in different countries in the world. An enterprise may not start a new corporation in a country without the president's knowledge or permission. The CEO does not need any permission to start a corporation in a "computer controlled" countries (c3).

An enterprise owner may also bid to purchase a state or a private corporation in any country. The bid price starts at the market value of the corporation but other enterprise players may bid for the same corporation and the price may change. The highest bidder will become the owner. The bidding period is around 4 game months. Presidents can block CEOs from bidding for corporations in their country.

Private corporations function in the same way as state owned corporations. They pay a percentage of their income as taxes to the government of the country where they reside.

In addition, private corporations pay a percentage of their revenue (percentage of the raw income from sales) to the country where they reside. The percentage depends on the quality level of the corporation. This payment represents a major income for the country and is frequently the reason why country leaders invite CEOs to build and purchase corporations in their country.

When viewing the corporations pages, the group of private corporations is listed separately. The country president is not able to manage the private corporations in his country. It is the enterprise CEO who is managing these corporations.

The CEO has a disadvantage when managing his corporations. Shortage of workers can be corrected by tuning the education system in the country to produce the professionals needed for the industry. Only the country president is able to do this as he is managing the education system in his country.

Enterprises have their corporations residing in many countries (Not more than six can be purchased in a single country) and they are not able to influence the education system in any of these countries.

As private corporations are major contributors to the economy in the country, it is in the presidents' interest to tune the education system in a way that will also benefit the private corporations in the country.

46. Private corporations - Upgrade level [ top ]

When a CEO is taking over a private corporation, the upgrade level, both efficiency and quality, is increasing by 30. The increase is independent of the previous upgrade level and can end up higher than the max level that can be achieved by repeated upgrading of a private corporation. The level may then reduce in time to the max level for private corporations.

If a corporation is nationalized and becomes a state corporation, its upgrade level will decline by 30.

This measure makes private corporations more profitable.

47. Automatic bidding on corporations [ top ]

Bidding for corporations is sometimes difficult because of a possible increase in the value of the corporation while the bidding process is taking place. The bidding amount can be increased automatically if the corporation market value is increasing. The bidding amount does not increase automatically if another bidder enters a higher bid.

48. Public Corporations [ top ]

Public corporations are a feature in all the worlds. Public corporations are corporations that have performed a public offering and are now traded on the share market. The public offering means, that part of their shares have been offered to the public and the corporations may now have many shareholders.

Shareholders in public corporations may be the old owners (the country or enterprise), or Enterprise CEOs that have bought shares on the share market. Investment funds in countries (managed by the president) can also invest their funds in shares to try and increase their value.

Public corporations are managed by the largest shareowner who does not need to have more than 50% of the shares but she/he must have more shares than any of the other shareholders in the corporation.

If some enterprise is the largest shareholder, the corporation will appear on the list of public corporations on the enterprise corporations' page. The list may however change frequently. If any of the other share holders increases his holdings by purchasing more shares of the corporation, she/he may become the largest share holder and the corporation will appear on her/his list of corporations and she/he may manage it from then on.

Holding more than 50% of the shares, will of course guarantee that the corporation will remain under control of the same shareholder.

Public offering can be used to raise cash by corporations or by enterprises that want to invest in new corporations without the need for large loans.

Part of the profit of the corporation can be paid out as dividend and is shared between the shareholders on the basis of the number of shares they own. Cash transfers that are possible between a private corporation and its enterprise owner are prohibited in public corporations. The cash of the corporation belongs in fact to all its shareholders.

49. Corporations can repurchase their own shares [ top ]

Corporations can repurchase their own shares on the stock market. This may result in soaring share prices but the corporation may have a lot of funds and use them. Higher share price will result in higher market value. Corporations can repurchase their shares if their net cash is positive. A corporation with high debt will never repurchase its shares. It may decide to issue more shares and use the cash to pay debt.

When shares are purchased, they are destroyed and the number of outstanding shares is reduced. The reduction can go down to 10 million shares but not lower. The number of shareholders may be reduced and if only one shareholder remains, the corporation is not public any more. If the one shareholder is a country, it becomes a state corporation. If the one shareholder is an enterprise, it becomes a private corporation.

50. Corporations can issue new shares at market value [ top ]

Corporations can sell their newly issued shares at market price. At the initial public offering of shares (the IPO), there is no market price and the IPO price is set automatically. Further shares placements on the stock market can take place at market price or at any price limit.

The price and profitability of the corporation will determine the success of such share offering. Shares will be sold easily if their PE ratio is reasonable.

51. Setting up new corporations [ top ]

When you start playing the game, your newly chosen country may have 10 to 15 corporations. The number depends on the type of corporations you have. Each corporation has 200.000+ workers and they are important for your economy.

It is possible and important to build new corporations but this only makes sense if there are enough unemployed workers in your country. Unemployment should be reduced, by setting up more corporations. When nearly all workers have jobs, it becomes difficult to set up new ones and having too many corporations with lower hiring levels in each corporation, can reduce profits.

You may request the setup of up to ten corporations at any one time. If you have already requested the setup of ten corporations, you must wait for at least one to be delivered before you can request another one. It takes time to build such large corporations, it involves large investments.

Corporations must be built and the capacity to build them is not always available. If production plants are in short supply on the world market, it may result in long delivery time for new corporations.

Having several production plants in stock in your country, will guarantee a faster delivery of new corporations.

Using a corporation building booster, can increase the pace of building to three corporations per game month, provided production plants are available.

52. Building corporations [ top ]

Each corporation needs a facility for production. Some need factories; some need offices with equipment and machines. Agricultural corporations need land and equipment and mines need equipment and other facilities.

When you request the setup of a corporation, it results in a search on the market for capacity to build the corporation. You do not need to purchase production capacity it is taken care of automatically.

The capacity to build corporations is measured by the availability of Production Plants. These can be purchased on the open market. Available Production plants mean that there is someone on the market who is capable of building your corporation. You need one production plant for one corporation. When you setup a new corporation, an order for a production plant is issued which is in fact a contract for the building of the corporation. A shortage on the world market of production plants can cause delays in the building of corporations.

If a country already purchased several production plants in advance, it means that building contracts for corporations are in place. Ordering a corporation may become faster.

Players may try to square the market, order many production plants and drive the price up selling them later for more. This is however costly without any guarantee for profit.
We advise you not to order many production plants and keep up to 3 or 4 in stock.

New corporations flash a "NEW" icon next to their name on the corporations list page. The icon stays there for one week and makes it easier to find new corporations on your list and manage them more carefully in the initial period.

53. New Corporations Profitability [ top ]

New corporations receive an initial capital injection. The money is given to the corporations for the initial purchase of raw materials. It is intended to prevent the corporations from going into debt. The money is paid by the country or CEO who are setting up the corporation. The initial capital that corporations receive is 50 B.

54. Building corporations in Computer Controlled Countries [ top ]

CEO's sometimes have difficulties in finding countries to build their corporations. It is easy to build in Computer Controlled Countries (C3).

Building in C3 countries is always possible whether there are sufficient numbers of workers or not. If the number of workers is too low, raising salaries to a level just above the salary level in the state corporations will pull workers from state corporations in the C3 country to the private corporation.

The education in the C3 countries is automatically set and provides all the professionals that are needed. Shortages are being corrected.

In general, the corporations that are making products that are in oversupply will be the ones losing their workers and may close down later, which is a natural process in the economy. It will reduce the overproduction.

55. Purchasing existing corporations [ top ]

Enterprise CEOs may decide to purchase existing corporations. Corporations may be purchased if they are not National corporations and if they did not change hands in the past 36 months. This means that a corporation can be purchased and repurchased again by another enterprise but there must be a minimum period of 36 game months between such transactions.

When purchasing an existing corporation, you may review a list of many corporations which can be purchased. National corporations and ones that changed hands recently are not showing on the list.

It is possible to choose and bid on any of the available corporations. The list is ordered by market value. You can also review all the data on the corporation, its production history, profit and loss history and the change in its market value.

When making a choice, the debt of the corporation and the profit or loss should be reviewed and may influence a bidding decision.

Once a bid is made, it may be changed or withdrawn in the first several minutes but it becomes definitive shortly afterwards and cannot be changed.

During the bidding process, the corporation may improve or decline and its market value may change. In case the market price changes and becomes higher than the highest bid and no new higher bids are placed, the corporation will not be sold.

Bidders receive messages when their bid is not the highest anymore and they may increase their bid. (This is also the case when the market price is becoming higher). The owner of the corporation being targeted will receive a message with the result of the process. It is also possible to automate the increase in the bid price and increase the chance for your bid to succeed.

56. Corporations in countries with no president [ top ]

Countries without a president are run automatically. The automatic process that runs these countries will periodically try to build new corporations that are producing products that are on short supply. This process takes place if the country has at least 50% of the needed manpower to run such corporations. Corporations with low production levels and low market value are closed after some time.

57. Gamemaster Corporations [ top ]

When an enterprise is abandoned, some corporations may lose their last shareowner who is a real player. Corporations with only investment funds or an Enterprise without a CEO as shareowners are not managed by anyone and will probably fail and close.

Such corporations are moved to the ownership of the Game Master enterprise on each world. The Game Master enterprise does not have a CEO and is not managed. We advise any player who is interested in purchasing a corporation to look into this enterprise, make bids and purchase the corporations

The Gamemaster Corporations enterprise may have a large number of corporations and all these corporations are easy to take over by any CEO with no delay or permission required.

Many of these corporations make products that are in short supply and have 100% production and hiring levels. They have a good potential to generate profits.

It is very easy to move gamemaster corporations to your enterprise. In case of private corporations, it is possible to bid for the corporation. If you win the bid, the corporation is yours immediately. In case of public corporations, buying some of the shares will move the corporation under your control. Investment funds are always eager to sell shares if the price is ok. They consider the price OK if they can make a profit of 20 to 30%.

The largest non-investment funds share holder will control the corporation.

58. Moving a corporation to another country. [ top ]

Corporations can move to another country if their owner decides to do so. State owned corporations cannot be moved to another country. The government owns them and obviously, the government wants to keep them in the country because they provide work for its citizens.

Private corporations may be moved from one country to another but at a considerable cost for the owners. Permission is needed from the accepting country as the new corporation may change the employment market.

There are several conditions that must be met before a CEO can move a corporation out of a country. When the conditions are met, there is a cost involved that must be paid to the country as a compensation for the unemployment and loss of profit as a result of the move.

There are also some conditions that will allow the corporation to move out without any compensation to the country.

General conditions when moving corporations out of a country

1. The corporation age must be >30 game months.
2. The corporation was not moved in the past 40 game months.
3. The new country where the corporation is moving to, must have availability of at least 25% of the needed work force in all categories.
4. Limitations as to the max number of corporations owned by a single CEO must not be exceeded. Not in your own countries and not in foreign countries.
5. The target country does not block CEOs.
6. The target country should not have other requests for new corporations or for the move of other corporations into the country at the same time.

Conditions for moving a corporation out of a country at no cost: A corporation can move out at no cost if:

1. The source country has no president.(C3). The move is immediate.
2. The president of the source country has sold population.
3. The tax rate in the source country is above 40%.
4. The corporation is damaged. The reason could be war or a rebellion.
5. The Production in the corporation is limited by non availability of manpower even though corporate salaries are above government salaries. The corporation must have a hiring target of 100%. It may produce at a lower level but its request for workers, at any level, is not fulfilled.

The cost of moving a corporation is 5% of the market value of the corporation with a maximum of 5 Billions.

59. Moving a corporation into a C3 country [ top ]

Moving corporations into C3 countries or building in such countries is immediate. There is no waiting period and no need for permission.

60. Corporations at risk of being closed [ top ]

The corporation-list page shows which corporations are at risk of being closed. There are two types of icons showing. One is just a warning message that links to the corporation page that shows the reason for the warning.

The other possible icon is a closure icon that also leads to the corporation page and shows the reason the corporation might be closed. This feature is intended to prevent surprises around the magical disappearing of corporations.

61. Closing Corporations [ top ]

It is possible to close a corporation independent of its value. There are several exceptions: Corporations cannot be closed if the country is involved in war or when there are offers outstanding to purchase the corporation. The max number of corporations that can be closed each month is three. Closing valuable corporations was in the past misused to create shortages on the market. New accounts were created briefly with the sole purpose of closing corporations. This is the reason for limitations on value and numbers of corporations that a player can close each game month.

Closing of corporations is easier for Premium Members because the risk of misuse is much reduced. With 200.000 to 300.000 workers per corporation, closing 3 corporations in a single month, and firing 750.000 people, is quite significant.

When a corporation is closed for any reason, its cash is moved to its owner which is either a country or an enterprise. All its loans are also moved to the owner who remains responsible for the payment of interest and for paying back the loan when it is due.

When public corporations are closed, any remaining cash is divided between the shareholders, relative to the number of shares they own.

62. Recently closed corporations [ top ]

The corporation-list page shows a message if any of the corporations was recently closed. The details of such closures have always been in the country newspaper and this remains the place where more details are available.

63. Changing the name of a corporation [ top ]

Corporation names can be changed, by clicking on the corporation on the map. The detail window shows the name of the corporation and other data. It also allows for name change. Changing the name is also possible from the corporation page and corporations menu.

64. Some Product Descriptions [ top ]

Cargo Airplanes

Cargo Airplanes are large transporters that are used to move resources around. They are capable of flying twice each day or in terms of the game, 60 flights per game month (4 hours).

Cargo airplanes are produced like other products in the game and can be purchased on the market or in direct contracts.

Cargo airplanes are used in the delivering of emergency resources. They are also used to move army units that are moved to long range locations overseas. Countries need cargo airplanes to have the capacity to move these resources around.

Corporate Maintenance Units

This product is used in the maintenance of corporations. "Corporate Maintenance Units" fall into the High-tech products group and are used by all corporations.

Corporations that produce at a very high quality level are using more maintenance products. If a corporation does not have the products on stock, it may see its quality reduced. Shortages of Corporate Maintenance Units will cause production to stop.

Weapon Grade Uranium

Weapon grade Uranium is used in the production of Plutonium. Plutonium is made of Uranium and a small quantity of weapon grade Uranium.

As nuclear power stations use large quantities of Uranium; its use in the production of Plutonium will be phased out and it will be replaced by larger quantities of weapon grade Uranium.

Trucks

Trucks are used in transportation, relief resources and by the army. Trucks are also used when corporations are built.

The army is organized in army units that move with all their weapons, ammunition, gasoline and military supplies.

Each army unit includes many trucks to carry supplies for a period. Supply units are used to re-supply military units that are deployed in their own country or on enemy territory.

Such supply units consist of mainly trucks, and some weapons to defend them. These convoys move back and forth between the ammunition storage in your own country and the places where units are stationed.

The numbers of trucks that is needed to supply armies in action is very large. A land base division that may have about 2000 weapons require 750 to 1500 trucks and large convoys may have up to 1.000 trucks.

Country and empire leaders, who are active in the war game, should realize that they need large numbers of trucks that may be destroyed when military units are attacked or when convoys are attacked on their way to and from military units that are deployed anywhere.